Why do we know every gory crime scene detail about such victims as Matthew Shepard and James Byrd Jr. and yet almost nothing about the vast majority of other hate crime victims? Now that federal anti-hate-crimes laws have been passed, why has the number of these crimes not declined significantly? To answer such questions, Clara S. Lewis challenges us to reconsider our understanding of hate crimes. In doing so, she raises startling issues about the trajectory of civil and minority rights.
Tough on Hate is the first book to examine the cultural politics of hate crimes both within and beyond the law. Drawing on a wide range of sources—including personal interviews, unarchived documents, television news broadcasts, legislative debates, and presidential speeches—the book calls attention to a disturbing irony: the sympathetic attention paid to certain shocking hate crime murders further legitimizes an already pervasive unwillingness to act on the urgent civil rights issues of our time. Worse still, it reveals the widespread acceptance of ideas about difference, tolerance, and crime that work against future progress on behalf of historically marginalized communities.
“Lewis provides a rigorous examination of hate crimes as a cultural product. The first analysis of its kind, the author has eloquently captured hate crimes as a seemingly impossible marriage of an oppressive criminal justice system and an aspiring civil rights movement. A deeply valuable contribution.”
—Michael J. Coyle, California State University, Chico
"Beautifully written and powerfully argued, Tough on Hate? cracks a counterintuitive puzzle: how mainstream understandings and denunciations of hate crime magnify rather than mitigate its social harm. A marvelous and important book."
—Thomas A. Guglielmo, George Washington University
Author / Editor Bio
CLARA S. LEWIS teaches in the Program in Writing and Rhetoric at Stanford University.
Table Of Contents
1. Introduction: The Cultural Politics of Hate Crimes
2. The Invention of Hate Crimes
3. The Nation and Post-Difference Politics
4. Cultural Criminalization and the Figure of the Hater
5. Hate Crime Victimhood and Post-Difference Citizenship
Epilogue: Challenging Hate Crimes on a Cultural Front
Appendix: Methods and Sources